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Fluidized-Bed Combustors

Atmospheric and pressurized bubbling and circulating fluidized-bed combustion test facilities are available for the development of technology using conventional solid and alternative fuels.
Fluidized Bed Combustors

Available Services

  • Characterization of candidate fuels and sorbents
  • Development of design data
  • Evaluation of emission control requirements and equipment (including air toxics)
  • Evaluation of corrosion, erosion, and deposition
  • Evaluation of ash disposal and reuse options
  • Materials selection
  • Performance optimization
  • Consultation services
  • Refinement of heat-transfer correlations
  • Evaluation of bed material agglomeration
  • Evaluation of hot-gas cleanup technologies

18- × 18-in. Bubbling Atmospheric Fluidized-Bed Combustor (AFBC) Test Unit

20-in.-diameter Large-Scale Circulating Fluidized-Bed Combustor (CFBC) Test Unit

Operating Conditions

  • Output capacity: 1 MW
  • Feed capacity: 3.0 MMBtu/hr
  • Nominal feed rate: ~400 lb/hr
  • Nominal temperature: 1450°–1650°F (790°–900°C)
  • Pressure: atmospheric

Dimensions

  • 20 in. in diameter
  • 72 ft high

Feedstocks

  • High- and low-rank coals
  • Petroleum coke
  • Dried municipal sewage sludge
  • Biomass

Process

A forced-draft blower supplies combustion air and secondary air to the combustor. Flue gas exits the top of the combustor and flows through the refractory-lined primary cyclone, ash-fouling section, air-cooled flue gas cooler, combustion air heater, stainless steel secondary cyclone, ten water-jacketed flue gas heat exchangers, and finally through either the flue gas bypass or the baghouse.

Data Collection

The EERC measures performance variables and relates them to design and operating conditions, fuel, and sorbent properties. Environmental performance is evaluated by measuring sorbent addition and utilization to achieve the desired SO2 control; NOx, N2O, CO, and hydrocarbon emissions; particulate collectability; and waste characterization and disposal. Evaluation of thermal performance is accomplished through measurement of combustion efficiency (carbon burnout), heat transfer, sorbent thermal losses, and fouling in the convective pass. Operational performance can be qualitatively assessed by examining fouling and deposition on heat-transfer surfaces, agglomeration or sintering of the ash or bed materials, changes in coal or ash particle size, and evidence of erosion or corrosion.

Status

  • Built in 1990.
  • The EERC is developing a consortium to evaluate the effects of using biomass materials. Under this scenario, the CFBC will be retrofitted with oxycombustion capabilities to evaluate system operations and flue gas constituents as well as ash and by-products. Additionally, it will be instrumented to assess the impact on CO2 emissions.

3-in.-diameter Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Reactor (PFBR)

Operating Conditions

  • Output capacity: ~50,000 Btu/hr
  • Nominal feed rate: ~6 lb/hr
  • Nominal temperature: 1450°–1650°F (790°–900°C)
  • Pressure: 150 psi

Dimensions

  • 3 in. in diameter
  • 55 in. high

Feedstocks

  • Dry or slurry fuel

Data Collection

An alkali-sampling probe can be inserted through the top of the hot cyclone. A data acquisition/control system is used to monitor/record all critical temperatures, pressures, flow rates, and emissions and to remotely control the numerous valves distributed throughout the system. A solids-sampling port is located at the top of the cyclone, and flue gas is sampled after the pressure letdown valve.

Status

  • Built in 1992.

8-in.-diameter Circulating Cold-Flow Model

4-in.-diameter Bubbling Cold-Flow Model

Small-Scale Fluidized-Bed Reactor (FBR)